Evidence and Burden of Proof under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act, 1976

‘Evidence and Burden of Proof under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act, 1976: A Procedural Guide for Business Lawyers and Government’ by Dr. Peter Fritz Walter is a specialized and practically useful analysis of the evidence problems and the burden of proof in matters of foreign sovereign immunity litigation under the FSIA 1976, both regarding jurisdictional immunities and immunity from execution. 

The monograph is an in-depth analysis of both the common law history and the final enactment of foreign sovereign immunity in the United States.

The United States’ Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act, 1976 has been welcomed by business lawyers in all Anglo-Saxon jurisdictions as a definite progress in terms of litigation practice and transparency as to the evidence rules, and the burden of proof that apply in cases involving foreign sovereign immunity..

The study concludes in demonstrating two distinct rules of the burden of proof, for each kind of immunity; the rules are widely uniform, and were corroborated by case law and scholarly opinion in all of the examined jurisdictions. They can be said to form today rules of international law.

The book can be taken as a reference guide for solving the evidence problems in trials against foreign states before American district courts, and as such is a precious asset in any international law library, especially for business lawyers in the United States and Canada.

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Evidence and Burden of Proof in Foreign Sovereign Immunity Litigation

‘Evidence and Burden of Proof in Foreign Sovereign Immunity Litigation: A Procedural Guide for International Lawyers and Government Counsel’ is the first specialized and practically useful analysis of the evidence problems and the burden of proof in matters of foreign sovereign immunity litigation, both regarding jurisdictional immunities and immunity from execution.

The monograph is a comparative law analysis that spans six of the seven existing national statutes on foreign sovereign immunity, starting with the United States’ Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act, 1976, to the Canadian State Immunity Act, 1982.

The study concludes in demonstrating two distinct rules of the burden of proof, for each kind of immunity; the rules are widely uniform, and were corroborated by case law and scholarly opinion in all of the examined jurisdictions. They can be said to form today rules of international law.

The monograph is of high practical value for litigation lawyers and government counsel struggling with evidence problems regarding foreign sovereign immunity. It can be taken as a reference guide for solving the evidence problems in those trials, and as such is a precious asset in any international law library.

The only titles that in scope, depth and size can be compared with the present study are already quite out of date, and they have, if ever, only randomly dealt with the specific procedural problems of evidence and the burden of proof in international sovereign immunity litigation.

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Charles Webster Leadbeater and the Inner Life

‘Charles Webster Leadbeater and the Inner Life’ (Great Minds Series, Vol. 9)—2019 Apple Books Edition—is a study about one of the greatest and most gifted clairvoyants the world has seen.

As Leadbeater’s gift of clairvoyance is the center point of this study, two book reviews have been added that are of equal importance, Shafica Karagulla’s study ‘The Chakras’ (1989) which was done in collaboration with Dora van Gelder, and Dora van Gelder’s own first person report, ‘The Real Life of Fairies’ (1999). Both books were published by the Theosophical Publishing House in Wheaton (Quest Books) which also published all of Leadbeater’s writings.

Clairvoyance is an extraordinary human gift, and according to the author of the present book, it should be recognized officially within modern science, for this would yield a wealth of information hitherto unknown to most of our scientists, while the lay public is perhaps more open to recognize such talents. In fact, polls in the United States have shown that 70% of the population believe in psychic powers, and only 30% are among the ’skeptics’ which is quite a revealing fact.

Leadbeater was not born with it, but, as the short biography reveals, learnt is through a very developed yogic master from India. This was different for Dora van Gelder who was a natural clairvoyant from childhood, who had an extraordinary speciality. The very reason why she published the book with Karagulla, an M.D., about the chakras, was that she had the unique ability to make a clairvoyant medical diagnosis, perhaps for the first time in modern history. While today such gifts are more widely known and accepted within our larger scientific paradigm, this was not the case yet at their lifetime.

The book comes with extensive book reviews and quotes, and comments, as well as illustrations.

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The Legal Split in Child Protection

The Legal Split in Child Protection: Overcoming the Double Standard (Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry, Vol. 9)—2019 Apple Books Edition—is a study that attempts to redefine child protection, and goes as far as formulating a new paradigm of child protection that is healed of the legal split that pervades it until now. The study explains that the laws for protecting the child against abuse are following a fundamental split in social mores and statutory regulation of physical violence against children, on one hand, and sexual relationships with children, on the other.

The perversity of this situation becomes evident when one realizes that the present sex laws in the United States punish non-violent, non-penetratory and non-harmful sexual conduct with children with roughly twenty years of prison, while a violent sexual assault on a child that may be followed by the mutilation of the child or even their death, receives more or less the same criminal fine. This legal situation is to be explained first of all with the fact that sex laws are basically irrational codifications that are the successors of Canon law, and second with a basic double standard that reigns in social morality in most Anglo-Saxon countries regarding physical violence against children in the form of corporal punishment, on one hand, and sexual activities with children, be they non-violent and consenting, or violent and assaulting, on the other.

While educational violence is largely socially accepted and justified with pseudo-rational arguments, even slight forms of sexual conduct with children, as for example having a child caress one’s genital while being fully dressed, are met with Draconian punishments that miss any rational basis, and that are legally unproportional. For this and other reasons, most of these sex laws are unconstitutional.

The study consists of two parts, an analytic part, which is an overview over existing case law, and a draft bill. In the first part, precedents and statutes are discussed that rule on the borderline between lawful corporal punishment of children and unlawful child battery. Details of those precedents are then compared with sex laws or age of consent laws in order to show the often unbelievable irrationality of those judgments.

The study demonstrates that, under present law, the dividing line between corporal punishment and child battery boils down to legally licensing rampant violence acted out on children by tutelary adults ‘in the name of the child’s best.’ On the other hand, even a care-giving caress of a child’s genitals would be considered in most states as statutory child rape.

The study reveals that the rationale behind such laws is not the ever again pretended best of the child but the present socio-economic value system and its moralistic roof structure.

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Pedophilia Revisited

Pedophilia Revisited: The Making of a Crime for Justifying Lacking Social Policy (Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry, Vol. 7)—2019 Apple Books Edition—is an extended study on the controversial subject of pedophilia, the sexual love of adults for children—humans who by legal definition are to be considered a ‘child’ for the purposes of criminal law.

This form of love, also called ‘childlove’ by those who feel sexually attracted to children, can be exclusive or non-exclusive, but the author’s research clearly points to the fact that pedophile attraction is not inborn, just as homosexual attraction is not inborn, but a conditioned response.

The study is multi-disciplinary in nature, highlighting the social, sexual, psychological and legal dimension of the problem complex, for arriving at a sound and tenable social policy proposition. The book also reveals a number of the myths that pervade the present public discussion, if there is any at all, with the sobering insight that the response of the public to pedophilia is by no means uniform and monolithic, but can be seen as a matter of various levels of tolerance, based inter alia on various levels of factual information.

The author sees the problem of sexual violence against children mainly as a lack of social policy making in matters of adult-child sexual attraction, as a direct consequence of the lacking political will to socially code these relationships. It is because they are not embraced by a social code that they operate in a kind of ‘free flow’ situation, which always provokes violent, unpredictable and chaotic responses. Hence, the need for arriving eventually at a review of pedophile relations with the lawmaker intending to socially code them and thereby regulate them responsibly.

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Natural Order

Natural Order: Thesis, Antithesis and Synthesis in Human Evolution (Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry, Vol. 6)—2019 Apple Books Edition—is a rather broad philosophical essay explaining on the basis of the author’s more than thirty years of research on human emotions and sexuality how, in accordance with the philosophical framework of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), three distinct phases can be made out in human evolution that Hegel called thesis, antithesis, and synthesis.

The thesis was the ancient natural order as carried forward from matriarchal cultures from the Paleolithic up until early patriarchy, about 5000 years ago, when native cultures lived their lives in an integral and sane manner, peacefully and in alignment with nature’s wisdom. 

The antithesis, then, was basically the last five thousand years of patriarchy. The essay shows that phenomena like pathological codependence between parents and children, emotional abuse, repression and perversion, the disintegration of sexual paraphilias through moralism, together with the rise of rampant violence and sadism, mysticism and narcissism were the result of straying from nature’s wisdom in the hubristic attempt to better the ‘impossible’ human. 

More specifically, the book shows that we are right now living in the ending phase of antithesis, indicated by rising youth fascism and an outright denial of complexity at the highest level of our governments.

In the last and perhaps most important chapter, the author shows the baseline of the synthesis that he projects to come about during the Aquarius Age, with a reintegration of the wisdom of native peoples and the recognition of what he calls ‘The Twelve Branches of the Tree of Knowledge,’ true Religio, permissive education and integrative, sustainable and humane social policies that are based on a new intelligent understanding of the ‘possible’ human.

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Minotaur Unveiled

Minotaur Unveiled: The Truncated Account of Adult-Child Erotic Attraction (Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry, Vol. 5)—2019 Apple Books Edition—is a historical assessment of adult-child sexual relations as they are to be found not only in historical and forensic literature, but also in the poetic writings of many famous authors around the world.

The study produces a quite stable basis of cross-cultural evidence for the fact that pedophile attraction by adults toward children, and perhaps as a correlate, gerontophilic attraction by children toward adults, is a software that was installed early in the human computer, so to speak in the cradle of patriarchy, if not much earlier in the cradle of matriarchy.

Without being able to say precisely when, and avoiding the daring speculation that some scientists come up with, which says that pedophilia was a product of sexual repression and that it never existed in sexually liberal matriarchal cultures, the study establishes rather a basis for the view that adult-child sexual interaction is a universal phenomenon that passes over cultural and epochal borders. 

What also strikes the observer is that sadly, many of those adult-child sexual relations were and are the result of social and moral corruption and have to be called abusive and exploitative. This is especially true for ancient patriarchy and particularly, the Roman Games. But it is also true for the times to come that are further examined in the study: Christianity, Victorian Era and Modern Times. Also during these epochs, the abundant majority of the accounts of adult-child sexual relations have to be qualified as child abuse by any sensitive and unprejudiced observer.

The study does not attempt to qualify adult-child sexual relations as ‘pedophilia’ as this term is part of a modern attempt to cognize these relationships and the term as the whole public discussion about it is not without bias, not to say that it is overshadowed by the diabolization of a group of people called ‘pedophiles’ who cannot be made out as the sole perpetrators of historic child abuse for the regular client in child prostitution old and new is the ordinary heterosexual, as all qualified academic studies show with abundant evidence.

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Ödipus Suite

‘Ödipus Suite: Ein Kulturbeitrag’ ist trotz alles philosophischen Tiefgangs ein Selbsthilfe-Essay. Selbsthilfe ohne Bewusstmachung der kulturellen Strukturen, in die unser Leben eingebettet ist, kann nicht überzeugen. 

Menschliche Größe kann nicht erreicht werden, indem wir uns über die Kultur hinwegsetzen, sondern indem wir die Kultur, die wir internalisiert haben, hinterfragen und bewusst machen. 

In diesem Sinn hat der Autor fünftausend Jahre Patriarchat metikulös untersucht, um die Grundstrukturen der Gewalt und der emosexuellen Aberrationen herauszufinden, die so bezeichnend sind für unsere Mordkultur. Er zeigt dies an alten Sagen auf, die er psychoanalytisch untersucht hat, wie zum Beispiel der Ödipus Sage, der Sage von Narziss und der von Orest. 

Hinausgehend über die Psychoanalyse Sigmund Freuds, zeigt der Autor, dass diese Sagen im Grunde miteinander verknüpft sind und nicht isoliert untersucht werden können bei der Wahrheitsfindung. Man könnte dieses Essay auch als einen Abriss der Psychoanalyse ansehen, wenn es nicht die Theorien Freuds in ihrem Grundansatz schärfstens kritisierte, vor allem seine Theorie vom Ödipus Komplex und der infantilen Sexualität. 

Der Autor vertritt die Anschauung, dass Freuds Ideen zur merkantilen Versklavung des neuzeitlichen Konsumkindes entscheidend beigetragen haben, weil Freud das Kind gleichsam einmauerte in die ödipalen Dramatik, die eine unmittelbar kulturelle Dramatik ist, jedoch mit der wahren Natur der Kindersexualität recht wenig zu tun hat. 

Hinausgehend über eine philosophisch-analytische Studie trägt sich der Autor als Jurist in diesem Essay mit sozialpolitischen und forensischen Erwägungen, um das Thema Sexualität und Gewalt einmal von einer ganz anderen und für die meisten Menschen eher ungewöhnlichen Perspektive zu beleuchten. 

Dies führt dazu, die Doppelbödigkeit der aktuellen Debatte über sexuelle Moral zu enthüllen und einen neuen und originellen Ansatzpunkt für Strafrechtsreform zu begründen.

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Das Dao der Staatsführung und Strategie

Das Dao der Staatsführung und Strategie

Der vorliegende Band ist eine Sammlung von Auszügen aus einem recht umfangreichen Weisheitsbuch des alten China. 

Die Nummerierung der einzelnen Strophen oder Weisheitssprüche wurde der Übersichtlichkeit halber hinzugefügt, ist aber im Original nicht erhalten. Dies gilt natürlich auch für die kunstvolle Anreicherung des Textes mit chinesischer Kalligraphie und Landschaftsmalerei im poetischen Stil des alten China.

Desweiteren wurden manche Strophen des Buches, die im Original aufeinander folgen, in einem Paragraph zusammengefügt, weil sie inhaltlich zusammen gehören. Man mag mir diese Freiheit verzeihen, aber sie dient dem Lesen des Textes in moderner Sprache, und dies umso mehr, als die chinesische Sprache von jedweder Sprache des Westens fundamental abweicht, da sie kontextuell ist und multiple, wenn nicht gar sehr verschiedene Übersetzungen rechtfertigt. 

Andererseits enthält das Buch aber auch viele Strophen, die einfach Wiederholungen sind, oder es werden Bemerkungen in manchen Strophen gemacht, die völlig ausserhalb des Kontextes stehen. Das mag seinen Grund darin haben, dass dieses alte Buch über die Kunst der Staatsführung nicht nur einen Autor hat, sondern dass viele daran mitgewirkt haben.

Während man beim Dao De King (Tao Te King), welches ich in deutscher Übersetzung bereits veröffentlicht habe, daran zweifeln mag, ob es wirklich nur von Laotse verfasst wurde—und die philologische Forschung ist denn heute überwiegend der Meinung dass auch das Dao De Ging von einer Mehrzahl von Autoren verfasst wurde—so kamen solche Zweifel beim Huainanse gar nicht erst auf. Es wurde von einer Anzahl von daoistischen Gelehrten verfasst, die im Dienst des Königs von Huainan standen, einem kleinen Fürstentum im China der Han Dynastie, im zweiten Jahrhundert vor unserer Zeitrechnung.

Der König war Kunst und Literatur sehr ergeben und sein Hof war ein beispielhafter kultureller Schauplatz, als acht daoistische Meister mit diesen Lehren auftraten.

Obwohl es einem schnell klar wird beim Lesen dieses Textes, dass diese Schriftsteller stark beeinflusst waren von den Klassikern von Laotse und Tschungtse bis hin zu Konfuzius, so ist der Fokus des vorliegenden Werkes doch ein recht anderer, denn es geht hier einzig allein um Staatsführung, Sozialpolitik, und politische Strategie, und nicht um allgemeine Philosophie im Sinne von Laotse oder Tschungtse, oder Ethik und Moral im Sinne der konfuzianischen Lehre.

Zu beachten ist weiterhin, dass die Werke von Laotse und Tschungtse von den bürgerkriegsartigen Zuständen des beginnenden Feudalismus geprägt waren, während die Meister von Huainan in einer Zeit der Rekonstruktion lebten, nachdem für einige Hundert Jahre Bürgerkrieg geherrscht hatte im ganzen China. Daher fällt auf, dass diese Lehren und Einsichten viel mehr positives Denken und viel weniger Zynismus enthalten, als die der Taoisten, die in turbulenten Zeiten ihre Bücher schrieben.

Ganz wie andere taoistische Schriften, so dient auch das vorliegende Buch der Kontemplation, und wurde nicht mit dem Ziel verfasst, eine jedwede Ideologie zu propagieren.

Obwohl der Fokus des Werks auf der Kunst der Staatsführung liegt, so wird dieses Thema doch sehr breit behandelt, denn es geht um so verschiedene Fragen wie Organisation und Management, Beziehungen zwischen Menschen, und solchen zwischen Beamten und Bürgern, Erziehung, Wirtschaft, Bräuche, Tierhaltung bis hin zu ethischen Fragen, die den Herrscher und seine Minister anbetreffen.

Es fällt auf, dass die Verfasser des Buches eine Vision vom Staat haben, die erstaunlich pluralistisch anmutet, obwohl ich nicht der Meinung anderer Übersetzer bin, dass dies eine ‘egalitäre’ Vision war. Es wird doch sehr deutlich gemacht im Text, dass Egalität kein Prinzip von Regierung sein kann, weil Gleiche nicht über Gleiche regieren können, und also Ungleichheit der Bürger die Voraussetzung für jedes geordnete Staatswesen ist. Dazu gehört auch, dass es eine soziale Hierarchie gibt, welche sich in der hierarchischen Struktur der Regierung selbst widerspiegelt.

Weiterhin fällt auf, dass die Autoren das Ideal eines geordneten und fortschrittlichen Staatswesens herausstellen und von degenerierten, unordentlichen und dekadenten Gesellschaften abzugrenzen suchen. Dies mag man durchaus als verschiedene Stufen in der Entwicklung des menschlichen Bewusstseins ansehen.

Ganz besonders wird herausgestellt, dass in allen Fragen der Staatsführung Wert gelegt werden muss auf Ausgeglichenheit und Harmonie, wie dies auch für den menschlichen Körper gilt, und die Interaktion von Menschen mit ihrer natürlichen Umwelt. Negativ stellen die Autoren Aggressivität und Habgier als die menschlichen Schwächen dar, die der Integrität des Staatswesens am schädlichsten sind.

Das umfangreiche Werk enthält Gedanken über Krieg und Frieden, Staat und Gesellschaft, und Weisheit. In der vorliegenden Ausgabe wurden die speziellen Anmerkungen zur Kriegsführung ausgelassen, da sie meiner Meinung nach viel prägnanter von Sun Tsu in seinem Buch von der Kunst der Kriegsführung ausgeführt wurden. Auch von den Weisheitssprüchen wurden nur einige wenige hier eingefügt, da sie sehr an das Dao De Ging erinnern, dort aber weitaus besser und prägnanter formuliert wurden.

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The 12 Angular Points of Social Justice and Peace

The 12 Angular Points of Social Justice and Peace

‘The 12 Angular Points of Social Justice and Peace: Social Policy for the 21st Century,’ Free Audiobook by Peter Fritz Walter.

Description

‘The 12 Angular Points of Social Justice and Peace: Social Policy for the 21st Century’ presents an articulate peace agenda that contains twelve distinct proposals for reducing violence to a minimum while promoting and encouraging pleasure-seeking behaviors both in children and adults.

The proposals are based upon research evidence of the often overlooked bioenergetic roots of violence demonstrating how the historical turndown of the pleasure function through morality/moralism resulted in an inevitable upsurge of violence through the neurodissociative brain.

Newest research on early tactile deprivation conducted by James W. Prescott, Ashley Montagu, Frederick Leboyer, Michel Odent and others namely shows the correlation between mother-infant affectional bonding, tactile pleasure and breastfeeding for the development of the healthy, neurointegrative brain and the building of peaceful/affectionate behaviors. The most important research results are:
—Violence is learnt, not inborn, and not part of natural human behavior;
—Violence is a response of the biosystem to the denial of pleasure/desire;
—Violence is a collective malfunctioning of a society that replaced love by morality.

The audience for this book is the general public, one one hand, professionals in education and psychiatry, on the other, and last not least government counsel responsible for new ideas in social policy making, and interested to be inspired by a new kind of agenda that does away with ‘moralizing’ and with the age-old belief that the human being was an ‘impossible’ one and had to be bettered, reformed, and ‘civilized.’

The Peace Agenda consists of the following 12 Proposals:
01/12 – Harmless Wrongdoing
02/12 – The Possible Human
03/12 – Fostering Public Sanity
04/12 – Respecting Natural Intimacy
05/12 – Serving Children
06/12 – More Public Education
07/12 – Free Education
08/12 – Politically Neutral Science
09/12 – Humanism and Realism
10/12 – Promoting Pleasure-Seeking Behaviors
11/12 – Male Affection as a Peace Conductor
12/12 – Fostering Permissive Education

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http://audible.sirius-c-publishing.com/12-angular-points-social-justice-peace

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